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Sunday, April 26, 2009

Hawthorne, Peter (2001, 10 December) ‘Drugs or guns’. Time Magazine, page 54-55

The article focuses on the rising issue in South Africa that is drugs or guns. The drugs are symbolic for medication that is to prevent HIV positive among pregnant women and guns is symbolic for military reaction. The article covers on the government who have to contend with two controversies that just won’t go away, arms and AIDS. Lately the South African legal teams were locked in a battle with the non- governmental arms reduction organization. The government does not show their effort in preventing HIV positive among pregnant women in South Africa. The government invest a lot of money for weapons but not on medication, which is the content on these articles. The aspect that I think found valuable or difficult is from perspective because it is all about the stance taken from the writers, and sometimes, we did not know what actually the stance of the writer. In this articles, the stance from the writers is negative and condemn the government and describe the issue specifically to the two legal cases that been faced by South African government.

The stance is negative towards this issue because it clearly shown by the fact that South African government misused the power that been given by the citizen by using that money in illegal way and involved in corruption. The government also forget about the welfare of their citizen. The article condemning the government as “irrationally and constitutionally” by refusing to heed the plight of poverty-stricken South Africans. The article also condemning the government as worse than assassins.

Hawthorne describes the government as those who take advantages with the citizen trust by using their money to buy weapons. For instance, in passage shows that A.N.C chief official Tony Yengeni faces for allegedly obtaining a cut- price Mercedes an arms- deal- linked firm. The government position the government as more badly than scams because their action that using the public money for their own benefit.

Sunday, April 12, 2009


Based on articles, Dieting: A waist is a terrible thing to mind is about the experience from the writer, Martin Selingman. These articles can provide them with the clues to the solution of their problem. In Dieting, the information that I find interesting is people who are concerned about their weight. For examples, the young women are universally concerned with their body image. They actually normal in weight, but they are terrified of becoming fat. So they diet, exercise and also take laxatives. Thus, all can cause bulimia which is a natural consequence of all self-starvation to lose weight, in the midst of abundant food.

Actually, weight loss products simply do not work. People said that if we take weight loss products, oue weight will be decreased, but it is not true. Because, in these articles stated that, Seligman cites a number of impressive studies that agree with this statement. These products also gain weight, each time making further weight loss more difficult and also have health problem such as bulimia, depression and others.

Besides, a myth of overweight is also interesting for me. It is some myths that people believe it. Such as have ‘ideal’ weight in order to live longer, overweight people overeat, and overweight people have an overweight personality. All this a re wrong actually. For examples, physical inactivity is a major cause of obesity is one of myths of overweight. It is probably not, because fat people are indeed less active than thin people, but inactivity is probably caused more by the fatness than the other way around.

In these articles, there has a concept for me that am difficult to understand which is concept off The Right Treatment. These concepts provide a weight loss Summary Table. For me, it is hard to understand what the table is about. Overall, for me, this articles Dieting is very important to people because it give many benefit if read it.

Sunday, February 15, 2009


Based on presentation by Izayati Husna, Mufidah and Farahin, their presentation focuses and explaining the relationship between the writer’s choices of metaphor and how these may influence the reader. What is good about this presenter is they can present their topic very good and clearly. Audience can understand it. Metaphor is a word that is used in an imaginative way to show the somebody shares the same qualities. Metaphor plays a key role in enabling us to talk about and construct the word. The presenter said that metaphor play a fundamental role in ordinary. For examples, computer, mp3 and hand phone, however some problems occurred when certain words being approach. Metaphor in discourse is having communication. The metaphor ‘argument is war’ is a specific manifestation of a more general process and the metaphor voted above, in which events and actions are constructed as a physical objects, such as love and personality and power. The reading are very useful because in can able to communicate with other and make sense of world and reflect our personal and culture. But, this group do not touch many critical issue. All the issue only taken from the text.



Based on presentation by Nadiah and Anisah, they present focuses on a type of text terms ‘exposition’. The characteristic features of these texts that are provide reason to support some thesis. Thesis is the main point of argument. Most effective ways is distinguishing differences types of exposition, which is to take this element. Thesis looks more closely of what being argued for. The writer distinguishes between 2 types of exposition based on different purpose they achieve. The 2 types are ‘analytical’ and ‘hortatory’ exposition. The former attempt to persuade the recipient that something is true, while the latter try to persuade the recipient to do something hortatory are ‘persuades to’, to explain why they should change, spoke while the analytical are ‘persuade that’ to explain why things are as they are written (academic speaking and writing). Comment about the presenter is they were reading the text and not came up with their own examples. This can makes audience do not understand what they were present, in exposition and metaphor, metaphor is usually something that teachers associate with poetry and narrative. Metaphor expressed in this way are less explicit that those created by similes. The presenter also includes in critical literacy and from reading, audience can identify differences between analytical and hortatory exposition and can change our perception towards speaking and writing.For this presentation, audience not really understand and they also include 10 elements in this presentation.


Based on presentation by Mastika and Syuhada, they explain meaning about crooked and fallacious. Crooked is not in a straight line and fallacious is wrong based on false idea. In the simply meaning, it is a logical thinking. Entails the ability to think logically and recognize and analysis instances of crooked and fallacious thinking. This reading also about a manipulative tool in the hands of speaker wishing to influence and affect the judgment of their reader which is Medium that use by the crooked and fallacious thinker to make people trust and ignore it. Presenters give the examples by find the donation to build mosque from Muslim not from other religion followers. A crooked thinker may give the impression that he is saying something meaningful and logical when he is fact not proving anything. The presenter said that a false analogy used to support an argument in fact prove nothing. For examples, some advertisement creates to give high expectation to consumers. Asking false question is in the case, the crooked thinker makes an unfair assumption in his question. Mis leading questions of this sort are often asked by lawyers when their make their cross examination. The presenters also state the critical literacy element in this articles which are audience, that involve in communication, rhetorical function: to explain and educate the reader and purpose is to explain and educate the people who involve in communication about the ‘crooked and fallacious thinking’.Overally, this presentation is okay.


Based on the presentation by Qila and Liyana, they concerned with the use and misuse of statistic and are intended to caution readers into more informed response to texts that link facts and figures. Statistic has the meaning which are information about any activity expressed in numerical form and others meaning is notes the art and science of collecting, presenting, analyzing and interpreting numerical data. Presenter told the importance of statistic in human affairs is obvious from our tendency to associate ‘facts’ closely with ‘figures’. There are 4 kinds of statistic which are unqualified averages, fallacious sampling, and percentage accompanied by actual numbers and misleading presentation. Misleading statistic are thus dangerous than others. A text is then offered for reading and analysis with the reader being asked to evaluate the deductions made within the text from the statistic used.This presentation need more improvement because im as audience not really understand what the presenter said.



Based on presentation by Nur Amira and Tunku Aimi Athirah in this reading 4.3, this text is about the issue of evidence and cross examination. Evidence is the facts, signs or objects that make you believe something is true. Cross examination is for the purpose of exposing inconsistent and contradictions in the testimony of hostile witnessed. From this reading, it is concerned with the issue of evidence. It begins with the famous case of the kidnapping of the infant son of Charles Kindbergh and examines the evidence, wholly circumstantial, that led to the conviction of Bruno Hauptman. The writer told about murdering case and kidnapping case. The presentation gave the differences between kidnapping and murdering case. Kidnapping case is circumstantial evidence while murdering case is testimonial evidence. In all cases, the writer urges that a reader should maintain in critical stance towards everything that is read.For this presentation, the presenter present this topic good and also easy to understand. but, the weakness from this presentation is sometimes the presenter cannot give the correct answer to audience when audience give a question to them.

Wednesday, February 11, 2009


From the reading 3.4, in my opinion it is about our experience of language is the experience of texts based on the presentation. The presenter Nor Ullyana and Syifaq said that it means our ability to use and understand language reflect how text shaped us as a people, including our understanding and our attitude in general. Knowledge is different with each individual (social factor). Audience can influence with the participants that the writer has already stated in the text. For examples, the presenter gave Ms Winner as a positive side while Ms Seductress as a negative side (sexist). In the section ‘Discourse and Reader’, the writers use ‘discourse’ to explain how texts shape people ‘identities’. Discourse is a perspective or stance. It can influence the audience to believe what the writer says. For example, the writer can influence audience to believe that there are many effect of bullies from article ‘Battling of the Bullies’. Besides, ‘construct’ in this reading using examples of Ms Seductress as a sexist “stereotype” whose whole identity is dependent on what men think, that’s mean, women can be used as a objects by men. Whereas, Ms Winner as a positive attitude of a women. They have all feminist discourse, but also wants discover how Ms Seductress makes herself attractive to men. The presenter also state that language and language users is based on their experience of social occasion. How this reading can be used in Critical Literacy? It is by ‘our experience of language is the experience of text’. It means that, knowledge is different with other individual and based of social factor that has their own position.For this presentation, the presenter use their own examples for ths topic. overall, this pesentation need more improvement because there are some sub topic that audience really not understand.



From the presentation reading 3.3, the presenter include 5 elements to develop the linguistic tools readers for enable them to identify certain global. For example, 5 elements are names such as ‘gave’ (overall shape), ‘field’ (texts about something), ‘tenor’ (position readers interpersonally, ‘mode’ (vary in degree of abstraction) and ‘ideology’ (covert ideological position). The aim of this reading 3.3 based on my opinion is to dig up what the writer is see as ideological positioning and open up a number of critical readings, which they can provides the basis of informed debate, analysis and critique. For example, the passages from school textbooks used by students doing juniors secondary commerce course.

Based on the presentation reading 2.3, text is the combination of sign. Each of these texts has paradigmatic and syntagmatic features. Paradigmatic is a relating to the choice or pattern of words in sentence structure. The main idea for this reading given by a presenter is that the text always socially constructed to have certain meanings and audience can learn a great agreement about a society by examining it customs as well as its verbal and visual texts. It produces, through using semiotic concepts of textual analysis. For example, Dunhill advert, we can think about their effect. Other example is from article “Battling the Bullies” we as a audience know from the text about the psychology effect from the bully. From this reading, audience can learn about discover important information about the writer’s values, attitudes and perspective (about the audience for whom a text is intended.From this presentation, overall it is okay and understand what they tell to audience.But,it also a weakness from this presentation which is they use examples from text book. They need to use their own examples for this topic.



From the presentation, this reading is about perspective and ideology. Perspective is the position or stance from which something is considered, while ideology is a national, political or social philosophy the belief system and outlook of a particular group of people. Besides, the presenter also shows how the connection of between perspective, ideology and language by illustrates these points using a range of newspaper, article written about events in South Africa. For example, differences language, perspective and ideology between white and black perspective. The reference to the black township of Soweto in Africa rather than simply to the township of Soweto is directed to an expectation on the part of the reader that people are white. The presenter told that to interpret these features that act as ‘markers’ or indicator of the perspective and ideology we need to understand how they interact ( writer and audience). The choices of vocabulary and grammar people make reflect the values and attitudes of their social group, rather than being result of a conscious selection process. As a conclusion, this reading are the product of the operation of linguistic system and the way of using language can influence reader that impact in critical literacy.

Wednesday, February 4, 2009

Reading 1.3

Reading 1.3

Rules and regulation

In this reading 1.3, it explains how the way of the language is organized can tell us about the relationship between the writer and the intended audience. The forms of language in use are a part of as well as a consequence of social process. It is the way we speak and write indicates the social circumstance of both writer and reader. Language can allows us to manage our behavior, as well as influencing or controlling that of others.

If a writer understands how a people in a particular social groups use language, then se that language to manipulate them. Rules are instruction for behaving in ways which will bring about an intended or desired state. By writing the rules, a rule writer is claiming the knowledge and authority to command obedience of these rules.

If the writer and reader agree on their roles relationship, then the writer establishes dominance over the reader. This is a power relationship. In this relationship, the writer of the rules is the commander and the readers are commanded. Furthermore declarative and imperative express the relation between speaker and addressee in differing ways. Declarative is statements which assert something as a fact, as if the reader or listener cannot argue with it. Examples during the presentation, the presenter said that ‘the sky is blue/ ‘I am a boy’.

Impact from the rules and regulation are:
* Give us awareness towards rules and regulation in our daily life.
* The important of having rules and regulation in a society of a community.

Reading 1.2

Reading 1.2

Stories and facts. – What can you understand from the presentation?
Anything that you can add

From this reading 1.2, it is about the relationship between the function and form of different types of writing. It is focuses on form of factual writing like description, recount, procedure and report in writing for and by children in order to illustrate the link between form and purpose. The presenter present this topic good but lack of communicates with the audience. As a result audience cannot understand what the presenter said.

Recount is a type of story in which people communicate “what has happened to them”. It is mostly the factual writing which resembles the recounts that just considered in some respect but differs along are crucial dimensions. Another thing in this stories and facts is the procedure of writing which is closest type a factual writing to narrative. It is build up around a sequence of events. While recounts will explain what was done, a procedure may draw a general conclusion from specific events and explain how things are done. It often contains instruction. Procedural writing makes use of both possibilities, although in mature texts one alternative is selected and used consistently throughout.

Reports writing will focus on ‘classes of things rather than individuals’. The function of the report genres as a whole is to describes in general terms, not explain and that, report function in our culture to store information. The difference between description and reports is very similar to that between Recounts and Procedures. Like procedures, reports make general, not specific statements.

With factual writing, there is a related concern that little opportunity is provided in these genres for creativity and imagination. Factual writing, on the other hand has a different function. Factual writing is designed not to amuse us, but to explore the world around us. Explanation will focus on a judgment made by the writer. It will involve the writer interpreting the world not simply observing it. Besides, sexism and factual writing describes the boys is nature and girls in the nurture.


INTRODUCTION – Reflect on what we have already learnt. What do you understand from it? 10 elements

The introduction in stage 1 includes these 10 elements such as topic of the articles, content, source, audience, the rhetorical function, purpose, perspective, positioning, impact and visual literacy. Topic should be a statement of what the articles is generally about, it’s main focus. The one sentence is enough. Besides the content should be a brief summary of the articles, which would give the reader an accurate understanding of the main points, without having to read the whole articles. In source, it must include all the reference details necessary to locate the text. For examples, ‘where might we expect to find a text like this?’ Maybe it is in daily newspaper or in the journals.

The forth elements is audience. This should be answer the question ‘who is the article written for?’ with audience to justify the student’s opinion. Rhetorical function is should identify which speech acts to apply to the article as defined such as informing, warning, advising and etc. the purpose takes rhetorical function further by saying what effect the identified speech act are intended to have on certain groups/ individuals. Purpose = rhetorical function+ audience+ topic. Besides, perspective is the writer opinion or idea. It is a basic tenet of critical literacy that every text has a particularly stance taken in the text by the writer towards the topic from positive to negative. Students must give evidence from the text to support their assertions. For positioning, its follows logically from perspective. It has to do with the way in which participants are constructed through the text at certain roles are given by the writer to the participants.
The effect of the text on the audience is called impact. The last 10 elements is visual literacy. This refers to the use of image in the text as well as the typeface in the use of headline and spacing anything that creates a visual effect.

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